Vol. 10 Tipos de tejidos.

Vol. 10 Types of fabrics.

Forma textil S de RL de CV6/11/21

In the last blogs we have talked about different procedures that are done to obtain a fabric. Precisely the fabric is one of them and the type with which a fabric is made is very important, since it determines the function and use that will be given to it.

You could say that there are two main types of fabric:

  • Knitted and flat fabric.
  • Dobby.

Each one has particular characteristics, uses, rigidity or elasticity. You can identify these by means of the weft (width of the fabric, horizontal weave), the warp (length of the fabric, vertical weave) or the type of machine with which it is manufactured, if it is by hand, machine, backstrap loom. , pedals or industrial loom . Let's tell you a little more about each one.

Knitted fabric is formed by interlacing a thread with itself through needles forming interwoven meshes, either by machine or by hand. Generally this type of fabric is much more elastic than the rest.
This can be warp (interlaced mesh in the longitudinal direction of the fabric) , weft (interlaced mesh across the width of the fabric) and circular (circular machine formed by a cylinder or a plate).

Illustration 1: Circular machine.

Within knitting there are different categories better known as weave. First we will mention warp weaves, such as rashel and tricot. They are easy to identify, since their appearance or structure generally looks like a net and they are mainly found in fabrics such as tulle, lace, some velvets, plush or tricot.
Then there are weft weaves such as jersey, interlock, spring, reverse, moss, braid, among others.

They are quite thick and the weft threads are more noticeable than the warp threads. They are mainly used for clothing, collars, sleeves, underwear, socks, stuffed animals, belts and sometimes interior decoration accessories .

Illustration 2: Jersey fabric.

Illustration 3: Spring.

Unlike this fabric, the flat or dobby is much more rigid, structured and is made with looms, whether artisanal such as waist and pedal looms, semi-artisanal frames or industrial looms, which also have frames, but digitized and It is through an established programming.

This fabric is the result of the orderly interweaving of a series of warp threads together with another series of weft threads in a certain technique. It is important to mention that the warp is what gives structure and the weft gives texture. You can identify them very quickly, since you can perfectly see a grid of straight, vertical and horizontal lines that intertwine.

These also have different weaves such as taffeta, twill, satin and jacquard. In addition to the ligaments mentioned above, there are others within these that are much more particular such as the mat, tassel, Roman twill, etc. But for now we will talk about the most important and general ones.

You can find these textiles in furniture fabric, interior decorations, table runners, cushions, curtains, rugs, kitchen towels and even clothing items such as a pair of jeans or jackets.

Illustration 4: Flat weaving and knitting.
Taffeta: It is one of the most common, it has neither right nor wrong, that is, it looks exactly the same from any view, it has vertical and horizontal lines, it can be balanced or not. The most common fabrics are canvas, canvas, poplin, taffeta, interlining, linen, suede, among others.
Illustration 5: Taffeta.
Twill: It is a fabric made up of diagonal threads, in addition, each warp thread floats on 2 or more weft threads. The best known are denim and gabardine fabrics and there are also some velvets.
Illustration 6: Twill weave.

Satin: It is a fabric with a lot of shine and is very delicate, it can be woven diagonally. This type of weave can be found in fabrics such as charmeuse, Shantung or any luster fabric.
Illustration 7: Satin fabric.
Jacquard: It is a composite and elaborate fabric, which allows designs or drawings to be made woven on the fabric and repeated certain times. It is usually made with two fabrics. The most common are brocade, damask, among others. Pay close attention to whether it is elastic or rigid, since in knitted fabric you can also find jacquard. This fabric can be used for clothing, interior decoration, duvets, rugs, curtains, furniture, cushions, among other things.
Illustration 8: Jaquard knitted fabric.
Illustration 9: Flat-woven jaquard.

Author | Jimena Chavez

References.

Image 1: Circular machines, (s/f), n/a retrieved on June 9, 2021 in
https://maquinascirculares.com/textiles/

Image 2: Teje, Yolanda, (2020) Jersey knit fabric on YouTube retrieved on June 9, 2021 at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KL28cmJWvEg

Image 3: Everything in Crochet, (2020) Spring on YouTube retrieved on June 9, 2021 at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dzua82lq1RY

Image 4: Knitting and knitting, (2015) Mil thimbles recovered on June 9, 2021 at http://mildedales.com/?p=150

Image 5: DO YOU KNOW THE TYPES OF EXISTING FABRIC? (2019)
in Lafayette retrieved on June 9, 2021 at https://www.lafayette.com/conoces-los-tipos-de-tejido-existes/

Image 6: Twill woven glass fabric 110 g/m2-100cm, (s/f) in Composites plaza retrieved on June 9, 2021 at https://compositesplaza.com/product/twill-woven-glass-fabric-110- g_m2-100cm/

Image 7: Sanditex fabrics, (s/f) Crepe satin recovered on June 9, 2021 in
https://sanditex.com/products/back-satin-satin-crepe

Image 8: Jacquard knitted fabric, (2021) in Stock retrieved on June 9, 2021 at https://www.istockphoto.com/es/foto/jacquard-tejido-de-punto-gm837371804-141256507

Image 9: Jacquard, (s/f) in Polished Fabrics recovered on June 9, 2021 in
https://tejidospulido.com/Hogar/Jacquard

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